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BJT Transistor

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The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices.

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.

A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base, collector, and emitter. It is a current controlled device that a small current at the base terminal (that is, flowing between the base and the emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals.

Two basic function:

switching” (digital electronics) or “amplification” (analogue electronics)

Three regions of operation

Active Region – the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = β.Ib
Saturation – the transistor is “Fully-ON” operating as a switch and

Ic = I(saturation)

Cut-off – the transistor is “Fully-OFF” operating as a switch and

Ic = 0

Bipolar Transistor Construction

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